That is half 4 of my collection on the Russian invasion of Ukraine, you possibly can learn the opposite elements right here.

In his speech declaring battle on Ukraine, the (not so nice) dictator of Russia, Vladimir Putin, stated the aim of his “particular operation” was the demilitarization and de-Nazification of Ukraine and ridding it of drug addicts. The aim of demilitarization made sense, a minimum of from Putin’s perspective – he wished a regime change. He’d take away the democratically elected authorities and set up a Russia-friendly puppet authorities as a substitute, thus increasing the ability and affect of the Russian empire. 

However de-Nazification? 

Putin made it sound like Ukraine is swarming with Nazis. However Putin was not speaking to me or my Western readers; this speech was directed to the Russian folks. A big majority in Russia is satisfied that the Russian Military is doing God’s work, eradicating from energy neo-Nazis that have been committing genocide in Ukraine and particularly East Ukraine (I mentioned this partly 3 of this collection). To my shock, I discovered that almost all of my center faculty associates in Russia consider this, too.

This was inconceivable to me. How might Ukrainians, who, primarily based on my interactions with them, have been culturally indistinguishable from Russians, instantly grew to become Nazis? I wished to know the place this neo-Nazis perception was coming from. I spent extra time than I’d prefer to admit studying and watching Putin’s propaganda to know it. 

All propaganda normally has a kernel of reality. To know that tiny kernel of reality about neo-Nazis in Ukraine, we now have to return to the start of the 20th century. That century was terribly unkind to Ukraine, simply because it was to most European international locations. Ukraine discovered itself caught between two empires, the Austro-Hungarian and Russian, that fought one another and stepped throughout Ukraine. Its folks have been continuously victimized. Ukraine fought the Poles within the Polish-Ukrainian Warfare in 1918. After which the Ukrainians grew to become casualties of each the Pink (Bolshevik) and White (anti-Bolshevik) factions through the Soviet revolution.

Because the Soviets got here to energy, issues received rather a lot worse. Within the early Thirties a few quarter of the nation died from starvation, a disaster that went into the historical past books because the Holodomor or Nice Famine. The Holodomor was brought on by the “good” insurance policies of Joseph Stalin. Ukraine on the time was a principally agrarian society – over 80% of the inhabitants lived on farms. Stalin’s nice concept was to collectivize the farms. All land was expropriated from its farmers and put right into a collective known as Kolhoz (an acronym loosely translated as “collective farm”). Farmers grew to become laborers on the lands they used to personal. Those that refused to surrender their farms have been known as “kulaki” (which interprets as “tight-fisted”) – they have been shot. 

When all people owns every part, no person owns something. You aren’t going to have soul within the sport if you labor for the collective good, an summary idea. Manufacturing from the collective farms was drastically decrease than after they have been privately owned, whereas Bolsheviks have been amassing “the vig,” primarily based on pre-collectivization output. Add some unhealthy climate into the combo, Ukraine starved, as thousands and thousands of individuals died from starvation (I’ve seen figures as excessive as eight million). As an apart, when politicians who by no means spent a minute working a enterprise come out with social-redistribution or financial insurance policies, consider Comrade Stalin and the way his theoretically possible insurance policies failed in observe and killed thousands and thousands of individuals. 

In photos of starved Ukrainians from this period, they appear no completely different from prisoners at Auschwitz. Ukrainians typically have a look at Holodomor as Russian genocide in opposition to Ukrainians. I’m not a historian, however it appears that evidently Stalin’s insurance policies weren’t directed particularly in direction of Ukraine but additionally impacted Russia and Kazakhstan. The Ukrainians have been additionally terrorized and abused by those that collected their wheat. They have been typically killed if they didn’t report all wheat that was collected. Evidently, many Ukrainians appeared on the Soviets as oppressors. 

I’m attempting to simplify a really complicated historical past in just some paragraphs, and I’m describing Ukraine as a monolithic nation. It’s something however. It’s a nation that usually holds reverse views on points in numerous elements of the nation. Maintain that in thoughts whereas studying this. 

Originally of WWII, when the German Military entered Ukraine, some Ukrainians (particularly within the western a part of the nation) checked out Germans as “the enemy of my enemy is my good friend.” They welcomed the Germans as their liberators from Soviet oppression. Some joined the Nazis and have become their henchmen, exhibiting cruelty much like that of the Nazis. Russian propaganda won’t ever allow you to neglect that. 

Additionally, as we speak we have a look at Nazis as heartless aggressors who killed thousands and thousands of individuals and perpetrated the Holocaust, and deservingly so. However we benefit from hindsight. On the opening of WWII, Jap Europeans didn’t know what would ensue. This had not been the expertise of Jap European populations after they handled the Germans through the First World Warfare. 

I learn Sam Zell’s fantastic autobiography, Am I Being Too Refined? Sam’s Jewish family didn’t wish to go away Poland in 1939. They weren’t afraid of Germans, as a result of the final time they have been occupied by Germany, throughout WWI, the Germans handled them effectively. Fortunately, Sam’s father traveled round Europe and realized that Hitler’s Germany was a lot completely different from the one twenty years earlier than. Sam’s household left Poland hours earlier than their city received bombed by the Germans. 

However I nonetheless must stress this level: The vast majority of Ukrainians, together with my grandfather, fought in opposition to the Nazis. They have been no much less courageous than the Russians, and plenty of gave their lives to liberate the world from Nazism. Once more, Ukraine is a big and various nation. 

Ukraine’s darkish historical past provides loads of materials for Putin’s propaganda machine to work with. However many international locations have darkish histories. Let’s take the US, as an example. If Putin’s propagandists wished to persuade Russians to invade America to liberate Black folks from “racist neo-Nazi White Individuals,” our historical past would offer loads of uncooked materials, too. 

Putin’s propaganda documentary would begin with slavery. It might inform you that the founding fathers of America owned folks as personal property. It might go on to inform you that racism is embedded within the DNA of our structure. The documentary would have historians narrating and showcasing the horrible lives African-Individuals had within the US for hundreds of years. None of them could be mendacity. There could be movies that includes the KKK lynching and tar-and-feathering Blacks. The movie would present footage from the Fifties—not that way back—of segregated public amenities with indicators “Whites solely.”

Then the documentary would fast-forward to current instances. You’d see video clips of police capturing Blacks within the again or choking them to demise. Or of final 12 months’s BLM and anti-BLM protests, just like the one in Charlottesville. Then it might combine in some footage of Hitler after which of neo-Nazis marching in Nazi regalia, brandishing torches and giving the “sieg heil!” salute – there are many these movies circulating within the US, too. After you have been performed watching this movie, in case you have been a kindhearted Russian, your blood would boil with anger and disgust towards White Individuals. 

This propaganda video would rigorously filter out any constructive developments which have occurred in our nation up to now century: the civil rights motion, the tip of segregation, and common public outcry from all corners of our society in opposition to anti-Black racism. It might not present that as a rustic we progressed, we modified, we improved. 

The propaganda machine wouldn’t cease with one documentary. Russian TV would feed you little clips of White Individuals exhibiting neo-Nazis tendencies a number of instances a day on the one and solely authorities information channel. Entrepreneurs know that so that you can bear in mind a message after which to consider it, it must be repeated many instances. The propaganda machine would convey a Hubble telescope to bear on each racial injustice that has ever been perpetrated in our nation. It might amplify them a lot that in case you had by no means been within the US, you’ll consider that Black individuals are so oppressed as we speak that there’s little distinction between their therapy by White Individuals 2 hundred years in the past and as we speak. I’m under no circumstances glossing over the numerous obvious and painful examples of racism in our present society. However, by the point Russian propaganda was performed with you, you’d be satisfied that Black individuals are afraid to go grocery purchasing and that White Individuals all put on KKK hoods as a substitute of baseball caps. 

Russian propaganda doesn’t cease at simply dredging up darkish historical past that has little semblance to present actuality. It makes up tales and phases faux occasions. Let me provide you with a really actual instance from Ukraine. After I wrote half 1 of this collection, a reader from Russia despatched me a video with the topic line “And also you say there aren’t any neo-Nazis in Ukraine.” I watched the video, and I couldn’t consider my eyes. Then I googled and located a number of respected newspapers writing about it. Here’s what The Occasions of Israel wrote about it:

[The video shows] buyers climbing up and down the staircase [in a shopping mall in Kyiv], whose middle-section stairs function a big swastika locked in a white rhombus encircled by crimson, much like Nazi Germany’s flag. The road the place the shopping center is situated is on the road named for Stepan Bandera, a Ukrainian nationalist who briefly collaborated with Nazi Germany in its battle in opposition to Russia.

Observe the Stepan Bandera reference; it is crucial. I’ll tackle him quickly.

I saved trying and located the identical story in every single place. After which I discovered an rationalization of what had occurred:

The LED stairs of the “Horodok” shopping center in Kyiv lit up with a large swastika for a couple of minutes on 16 February 2019. The stunning show bewildered buyers, and after a number of minutes, safety turned off the ability of the LED lights. Horodok’s administration apologized for the incident and claimed their computer systems have been hacked.

We’ll by no means know whether or not the LED show was hacked by a Russian disinformation operation or Ukrainian neo-Nazis. The purpose is, this video would have you ever consider {that a} gigantic Nazi swastika in a shopping center within the middle of Kyiv is simply one other day in Ukraine. After all, it’s something however. Displaying swastika is against the law within the Ukraine. The identical newspaper I quote above wrote the next: “On 21 February, Ukraine’s safety service opened a prison probe into the swastika present underneath p.1 of article 426-1 of Ukraine’s prison code, which prohibits propaganda of Nazi and Communist ideology.”

This is only one of many examples the place Russian propaganda tries to painting Ukrainians as neo-Nazis. 

We can not talk about the subject of neo-Nazism in Ukraine and never talk about Stepan Bandera. You hear Bandera’s title on Russian TV nonstop. In truth, they’ll name Ukrainians “Banderovtsi,” which implies, to them “Russia- and Soviet-hating, Jew-killing neo-Nazis.”

Stepan Bandera fought for the independence of Ukraine and have become the top of the Group of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in 1933. He orchestrated the assassination of the Polish minister of the inside, for which he was sentenced to demise. The Nazis invaded Poland and Bandera escaped from jail.

Bandera collaborated intently with Nazi Germany. The Nazis led him to consider that Ukraine would get its independence underneath German rule. The Nazis broke their promise shortly after the invasion of Ukraine. Afraid that Bandera would begin a revolt in opposition to Germany, they arrested him in June 1941. Bandera spent most of WWII in a German focus camp. Whereas he was there, his group, OUN, preventing on Germany’s facet, dedicated atrocities in opposition to Russians, Jews, and Poles, murdering as many as 100,000 folks. Bandera was assassinated by the KGB in 1959.

Jewish folks suffered from pogroms (organized massacres) throughout Europe for hundreds of years. Most governments all through Europe both inspired it or closed their eyes. Ukraine was not any completely different. Nevertheless, Lenin put in place an anti-pogrom coverage. This is the reason a number of Jews joined the Soviets. Since Soviets have been the enemy, and thus so have been Jews, this gave Ukrainians another excuse to hate Jews. (Being Jewish, the primary purpose nonetheless escapes me.) Here’s what Bandera stated about Jews: “The Jews within the USSR represent essentially the most devoted assist of the ruling Bolshevik regime, and the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in Ukraine.” I hate discovering a nuance in somebody hating a race (my race), however his hatred of Jews was very completely different from Hitler’s perception that “Jews are an inferior race.”

After we talk about Bandera we have to outline two phrases, nationalist and patriot. We’re getting into into the murky entrails of social science. Patriotism typically carries a constructive connotation and nationalism a detrimental one, although till the twentieth century they each meant the identical factor. They’ve a typical core: love of and dedication to at least one’s nation. A patriot needs sovereignty for his nation. A nationalist is usually patriot who consider within the superiority (exceptionalism) of his or her nation or race, as was the case with the Nazis). Plenty of nationalists will tolerate minorities so long as they don’t intrude with the bulk – that was the case with Bandera. Nazis are a contemporary instance of an excessive case of nationalism. Nevertheless, the traces between the 2 phrases typically get blurry, as you’ll see. 

Was Bandera a nationalist or a patriot? We all know he wished an impartial Ukraine, as any patriot would. Nevertheless, since along with Ukrainian independence he wished to rid all different nationalities from Ukraine, that will make him a nationalist. Bandera is a polarizing determine in Ukraine. A 3rd of the nation has a detrimental picture of him as a murderous nationalist and a 3rd a constructive one as a fighter for Ukraine’s independence (I get the sensation those that suffered essentially the most from the Soviets belong to this group). He’s unpopular in Jap Ukraine (the territory nearer to Russia) and very talked-about (a 76% favorable ranking) in Western Ukraine.

In 2015, Ukraine handed a legislation targeted on the de-communization of Ukraine, which resulted within the elimination of Soviet monuments and the renaming of 52,000 streets beforehand named after Soviets, changing them with the names of Ukrainian historic figures. The legislation gave a number of uncooked materials to Putin’s propaganda machine. First, Russians, who, similar to Ukrainians, suffered large losses throughout WWII, are very delicate to something regarding WWII. If you wish to get right into a bar battle with nearly any Russian, inform them that the Individuals, by opening a second entrance, helped to win WWII. 

Because of Russian propaganda reminding them about it a number of instances a day, Russians are insulted by Ukrainians eradicating from their streets the names of Soviet generals who fought the Nazis. Additionally, since they see Bandera solely as a Nazi sympathizer, they painting this transfer as Ukraine reverting to its pure state of being neo-Nazi and thus displaying its true colours. However right here’s an necessary level: This legislation additionally banned Nazi symbols.

I attempted to debate this subject with my classmates from Russia. I’d inform them that I understood that they’d a problem with Bandera (I’m not a fan, both). However I might see how some Ukrainians have a look at him because the fighter for his or her independence that this nation at all times wanted. This doesn’t make Ukrainians routinely neo-Nazis; in any case, (paraphrasing Forrest Gump), a Nazi is what a Nazi does. 

Irony arises after I ask my Russian classmates, don’t you suppose that what Stalin did to Russians, Ukrainians, and the remainder of the Soviet Union was exponentially worse than what Bandera did? In any case, Stalin killed twenty million folks within the Soviet Union. He beheaded prime ranks of the Soviet Military (similar to Putin, or any dictator, he was afraid of sturdy leaders), which resulted in a lot better losses of life within the Soviet Union throughout WWII. I’d inform them, you criticize Ukrainians for naming streets after Stepan Bandera, however Joseph Stalin is in vogue once more in Russia and his statues are popping up everywhere in the nation. My Russian center faculty associates tended to answer that Stalin was a fancy, non peculiar particular person. 

After which there’s the Azov Battalion. This title pops up in each different dialog and Putin’s propaganda. The Azov Battalion is called after the Azov Sea. It began out as a non-public militia funded and fashioned by a Ukrainian oligarch to battle off the Russian invasion of Jap Ukraine. On the time of its formation the Ukrainian Military was very weak, and the formation of the battalion appeared like an act of desperation. Russians are terrified by this battalion, because it fought efficiently within the second assault of Mariupol in 2014. (Mariupol is town being become rubble by Putin’s bombing as we speak.) In 2015 the Azov Battalion was folded into the Ukrainian Nationwide Guard. It stays one of many best-trained items in Ukraine. I’ve learn studies that the battalion has been educated by the US. Its sole aim is to defend Ukraine from Russia.

There may be loads of uncooked materials right here for Russian propaganda. The insignia of the battalion considerably resembles a swastika, although the battalion denies that. It says that it derives from a Ukrainian image that dates again to 1918. Name me a skeptic. Extra importantly, at one level as many as 20% of its members recognized themselves as neo-Nazi sympathizers.

I struggled with Azov for a very long time, after which had this perception: Think about my neighborhood is overrun by invaders (zombies, in case you like). My next-door neighbor is a neo-Nazi, wears a Nazi swastika, lights a candle every single day to Adolph Hitler, and bakes a cake for Hitler’s birthday. We, my neighbor and I, take up arms to battle these invaders, who’re decided to kill our households. At this level I don’t care what beliefs my neighbor holds, I simply wish to make certain he has a gun and is aware of use it. We don’t share the identical values (an understatement), however at this level we’re united by the identical aim. My neighbor could also be a nationalist, he might imagine our neighborhood is superior to others (although he doesn’t do something about it), however at this level we’re each patriots preventing to guard our family members. 

That is precisely how I view the neo-Nazi 20% of the Azov Battalion. Right this moment they share the identical aim as the remainder of the battalion and 100% of the nation: Free Ukraine from the Russian invaders who’re killing their family members and leveling their cities. Additionally, I’ve to remind you that the Azov Battalion is a battalion, not the entire military. I’ve seen numbers that it has 900 troopers, so within the worst case 180 are sympathetic to neo-Nazis; however the Ukrainian Military has 1 / 4 of one million folks, so 180 is a rounding error. Russian propaganda would have you ever consider that 20% of that battalion is the entire Ukrainian Military.

As a lot as Russians would like to level to neo-Nazis within the Azov Battalion, they need to have a look at their very own ranks. In 2015, Russia (unofficially) despatched their navy to assist Russian separatists in Jap Ukraine preventing the Ukrainian Military. Putin additionally despatched a Russian neo-Nazi group, the Russian Imperial Motion. I used to be going to say that Russian-sponsored neo-Nazis are a transparent occasion of nationalists, not patriots, however then I spotted that they’re simply neo-Nazis thugs employed to kill Ukrainians. 

(When you’d prefer to be taught extra in regards to the Azov Battalion, these two movies present an goal overview: one and two.)

“Is there a neo-Nazi downside in Ukraine?” I’d ask my Ukrainian associates (who I used to be fairly sure weren’t neo-Nazis). They’d be considerably puzzled by it, as if they’d not given it a lot thought, simply as you’d draw a clean look in case you requested me or any of my associates in Denver (or most of my readers, in all probability) the identical query in regards to the US. I do know I’d be puzzled by it. I see occasional clips on TV of white supremacists having political rallies. There was a tragic capturing at a synagogue in Pittsburgh in 2018, which has now been shuffled in my reminiscence with a dozen of different mass shootings unrelated to neo-Nazis which have occurred since. I’ve learn that anti-Semitism is on the rise within the US and Europe. However when my spouse and children and I am going to synagogue, I don’t fear about our security. Fortunately. 

However then I learn that nearly one out of ten Individuals thinks it’s acceptable to carry neo-Nazi views. I don’t know a single a kind of “one out of ten.” I doubt lots of my associates and readers do, both. Perhaps these “one out of ten” fall exterior of our myopic circles (I mentioned the idea of myopic circles right here) and regular, type hearted, civilized folks don’t normally affiliate themselves with scum (I’m not apologetic about it). Or simply possibly, these “one out of ten” are round us they usually simply don’t publicize their neo-Nazi sympathies. 

In 2019 Ukraine held democratic elections. 73% of the nation voted to elect a Jewish president in a rustic that additionally had a Jewish prime minister. Ukrainians have to be a singular breed of neo-Nazis, as Ukraine is the one nation on the planet whose head of presidency and head of state are Jewish (exterior of Israel). By the way in which, in the identical election, the far proper celebration received solely 2.3% of the vote. So no, Ukraine doesn’t have a neo-Nazi downside. Similar to any Western nation, Ukraine is affected by the neo-Nazi most cancers, but it surely represents solely a tiny portion of the society. 

I used to be speaking to an expensive childhood good friend who lives in Russia, and he advised me one thing that caught with me. He stated, “The issue with Russians is, we don’t apologize.” I didn’t perceive it on the time, however then I discovered this speech by the Ukrainian prime minister to Israel’s Knesset in 2015, apologizing to the Jewish folks for the position Ukrainian collaborators performed in executing 33,000 Jews in lower than two days through the Babi Yar in 1941.

That apology won’t convey these perished souls again. However it can do two issues: It’s an admission and it takes possession of this occasion. Which will sound like slightly factor, however it’s not. We reside in a society the place historical past is written not by the man with a pen however by the man holding a gun to the top of the man with a pen. Historical past is continually being rewritten – in Russia, Stalin went from being a monster to celebrated hero once more in lower than twenty years. An apology by a president of a rustic cements reality into the historical past books. Although it’s not a assure, it reduces the possibilities of repeating an atrocity sooner or later. Neo-Nazis don’t make apologies like that. 

For the final three weeks, as I used to be engaged on this four-part essay collection, I deepened my appreciation of so many issues we take with no consideration within the Western world: democracy, free elections, due course of, and the rule of legislation, however particularly these two issues: freedom of speech and a free press. 

Right this moment in Russia, individuals are put in jail not only for talking in opposition to this battle however for merely calling this “particular operation” in Ukraine a battle. Taking part in a peaceable demonstration or posting an image of killed Ukrainian civilians on social media will even land you in jail. After which there’s freedom of the press, which dies with out freedom of speech. That is precisely what has occurred (once more) in Russia. 

Propaganda coupled with the dismantling of the free press has created a weapon of mass distraction. This mixture is extremely harmful; it provides a dictatorial authorities limitless energy over the thoughts of its folks. It permits authorities to exactly curate what folks suppose and thus gives an nearly limitless carte blanche for presidency actions – that is what allowed the unthinkable, barbaric battle in opposition to Ukraine. 

Propaganda strips away all impartial pondering, turning folks into senseless drones. Propaganda works by inflicting our proper (emotional) mind to overwhelm our left (analytical) one. The extra you “suppose” along with your proper mind, the much less pondering you do. Over time, feelings evoked by propaganda forestall you from objectively analyzing the topic at hand. You could have a tough time telling what’s true and what’s not. Over time, peer strain units in, and it’s arduous to be the one enlightened one. That is how folks get zombified.

I bear in mind watching The Strolling Useless – that present a few zombie apocalypse. This second caught with me. A husband sees his wife-turned-zombie strolling down the road. He runs as much as her and tries to speak to this shell of an individual. He desperately makes an attempt to attraction to any particle of soul left within the physique of what was his spouse. He can not get by means of to her. She is lifeless. He’s speaking to an empty shell. Unusually sufficient, that is the expertise I had after I tried speaking to Russians zombified by Putin’s propaganda about Ukraine and neo-Nazis in Ukraine. This expertise will not be distinctive to me. I’ve examine and met younger Russian adults who’ve had this expertise with their mother and father, who have been in any other case clever folks and nonetheless are in terms of different elements of life. 

When you look deep sufficient into the historical past of just about any nation, you’ll discover darkish, tragic holes in it. However we’re not our historical past. We aren’t our previous. We’re what we be taught from it. We’re our actions as we speak. Ukraine had a tragic and painful historical past, however not like Russia, it has discovered from it. 

Ukraine’s fault was that it was a budding democracy proper subsequent to a shriveling, dictatorial ex-empire. Putin couldn’t reside with the truth that a democracy subsequent door, a rustic that didn’t wish to reside underneath his thumb, additionally wished to embrace Western values. It additionally dared to try to prosper whereas the ex-empire underneath his rule grew to become a bit much less related every single day. 

The dictator subsequent door wanted an excuse to invade Ukraine. The nonexistent menace of NATO appeared like an excellent one. But it surely was not sufficient justification for beginning a battle and killing individuals who look similar to his personal inhabitants. He needed to dehumanize the folks he was about to kill. He satisfied his populace that by his bombing cities and killing Ukrainians by the hundreds, the Russian Military was doing God’s work and de-Nazifying the nation – he even threw within the bonus that he’d additionally do away with drug addicts. (I’ll contact on that subsequent.) 

In all honesty, neither an excuse to invade nor his dehumanization marketing campaign actually mattered. With the thoughts management his propaganda has over Russians, given sufficient time he might have satisfied them he was de-Marsifying Ukraine from Martians. 

One final observe: 

In his speech Putin stated that along with de-Nazification he’d be ridding Ukraine of drug addicts. My shut childhood good friend advised me an attention-grabbing story about this. One week into the battle, Volodymyr Zelensky was giving an interview to the Western media, and he was falling asleep. For a number of days Russian propaganda replayed this clip. For a number of hours a day the propaganda machine paraded a military of psychologists and drug habit specialists to elucidate to the thirsty-for-knowledge Russian public that this Jewish neo-Nazi (the brand new type) was behaving similar to a typical drug addict. After all, any particular person with only a slight consciousness of the scenario wouldn’t want a military of specialists to inform them what was occurring with Zelensky – he was terribly sleep-deprived. 

However right here is the place the attention-grabbing half is available in. My good friend was speaking to his mother-in-law. She was telling him how Zelensky is a drug addict. He requested her, “Don’t you suppose he’s simply quick on sleep as a result of his nation is at battle?” She gave him a puzzled look. He continued, “The place do you suppose Zelensky is?” She replied, “In Poland, along with his household.” My good friend threw up his fingers and stated “I surrender!”  I relaxation my case.

The submit Warfare in Ukraine: Half 4 – Are There Neo-Nazis in Ukraine? appeared first on Vitaliy Katsenelson Contrarian Edge.


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